TAS Publications

Videos on a Method for Ethical AI in Defence

A suite of fourteen videos on the Ethics of Robotics, Autonomous Systems and Artificial Intelligence for Defence were produced by Trusted Autonomous Systems for the Centre for Defence Leadership & Ethics (CDLE) Australian Defence College (ADC). See more details in the Defence Science & Technology Group (DSTG) Technical Report DSTG-TR-3786 ‘A Method for Ethical AI in Defence’.

As part of this video series, we explore the five facets for ethical AI in Defence:

Introduction to the Ethics of Robotics, Autonomous Systems and Artificial Intelligence in Defence

Pragmatic Tools for Considering and Managing Ethical Risks in AI for Defence

Annual Reports

Publications – TAS Contributors

(Some may require purchase or subscription)


Devitt, S. K., Scholz, J., Schless, T., & Lewis, L. (2022). Developing a Trusted Human-AI Network for Humanitarian Benefit. The Journal of Digital War, Special Issue ’My War’. [under peer review] 

Laird, R.F, ed (2022). Defence XXI: Shaping a Way Ahead for the Unites States and its Allies

Roberson, T, Bornstein, S, Liivoja, R, Ng, S, Scholz, J, Devitt, K(2022) A method for ethical AI in defence: A case study on developing trustworthy autonomous systems, Journal of Responsible Technology, Volume 11, 2022, 100036, ISSN 2666-6596, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrt.2022.100036

Trusted Autonomous Systems, (2022), The Australian Code of Practice for the Design, Construction, Survey and Operation of Autonomous and Remotely Operated Vessels, Edition 1


Back, Andrew D., and Janet Wiles. 2021. “Entropy Estimation Using a Linguistic Zipf–Mandelbrot–Li Model for Natural Sequences” Entropy 23, no. 9: 1100

Devitt, S. K (2021) ‘Does Australia’s commitment to Ethical AI give our adversaries the edge?’ W.A. Defence Review 2020-21 Annual Publication, pps 216-217.

Devitt, S. K. (2021). Normative epistemology for lethal autonomous weapons systems. In J. Galliott, D. MacIntosh, & J. D. Ohlin (Eds.), Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Re-Examining the Law and Ethics of Robotic Warfare. Oxford University Press. 

Galliott, J., MacIntosh, D. & Jens, D.O. (eds.) (2021). Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Re-Examining the Law & Ethics of Robotic Warfare. Oxford University Press.

Horne, R. (2021). Autonomous and remotely operated vessels 2021 to 2040. MIAL Future Leaders White Paper. Predictions for the Australian Maritime Industry 2040. Maritime Industry Australia Limited. pp.12-27

Liivoja, R., Väljataga, A. (eds.) (2021), Autonomous Cyber Capabilities under International LawNATO CCDCOE Publications.

McKenzie, S. (2021). Autonomous Technology and Dynamic Obligations: Uncrewed Maritime Vehicles and the Regulation of Maritime Military Surveillance in the Exclusive Economic ZoneAsian Journal of International Law.

Massingham, E. (2021). Automation of the Spectrum, Automation and the Spectrum: Legal Challenges When Optimising Spectrum Use for Military Operations. Law, Technology and Humans, 3(1).

Massingham, E (2021), ‘Navigating to autonomy: legal questions in the use of autonomous aerial vehicles by the Australian military’, Australian Journal of Defence and Strategic Studies, AJDSS Volume 3 Number 1 (2021).

Massingham, E (2021), An AI-flown military aircraft is being designed in Australia. Are our laws equipped to protect us?, The Conversation, (Subsequently reposted on ABC News)

Scholz, J.B. (2021) ‘Disruptive AI for Defence’, Invited Keynote speech, IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI), Orlando Florida and online, presented on 6 Dec.

Selvaratnam, D, Cantoni, M, Davoren, J,M, Shames, I (2021), ‘Sampling Polynomial Trajectories for LTL Verification’, Theoretical Computer Science, [Arvix prepublication]

Various (TAS contributors, Chapter 9 Defence), Robotics Australia Group, A Robotics Roadmap for Australia 2022


KaiLiao, Chwen, Manzie, Chris, Chapman, Airlie, (2020), A distributed algorithm for UAV-based communication networks using constrained extremum seeking, IFAC Papers Online.

Korte, Jessica, Bender, Axel, Gallasch, Guy, Wiles, Janet, and Back, Andrew (2020). A plan for developing an Auslan communication technologies pipeline. ECCV 2020: Computer Vision – ECCV 2020 Workshops, Glasgow, Scotland, 23–28 August 2020. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Liivoja, R., Massingham, E., MacFarlane, T., and McKenzie, S., (2020). Are autonomous weapons systems prohibited? TAS Game-Changer Blog and UQ Law School. 

McFarland, T. (2020). Is an Autonomous Weapon System Just a Machine? Fifteeneightyfour, the blog of Cambridge University Press, Law & Government.

McKenzie, S. (2020). When is a Ship a Ship? Use by State Armed Forces of Un-crewed Maritime Vehicles and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Forthcoming Melbourne Journal of International Law

Massingham, E. (2020). Navigating to autonomy: legal questions in the use of autonomous aerial vehicles by the Australian military. ANZSIL International Peace and Security Interest Group Seminar Series 2020, Online, 24 July 2020.

Massingham, E. (2020). Radio Silence: Autonomous Military Aircraft and the Importance of  Communication for their Use in Peace Time and in Times of Armed Conflict under International Law, University of Queensland Law School (This paper appeared in (2020) 1(1) Asia-Pacific Journal of International Humanitarian Law 184–208)

Massingham, E., McKenzie, S., and Liivoja, R. (2020). AI and Machine Learning Symposium: Command in the Age of Autonomy–Unanswered Questions for Military Operations, OpinioJuris

Scholz, J.B. and Galliott, J. (2020). The Case for Ethical AI in the MilitaryOxford Handbook of the Ethics of AI, Cases and Applications: Military. Chapter 36.

Scholz, J.B, Lambert, D.A,  Bolia, R.S, and Galliott, J. (2020). Ethical Weapons: A Case for AI in Weapons. In Moral Responsibility in Twenty-First-Century Warfare. SUNY Series in Just War Theory and the Ethical Challenges of Autonomous Weapons Systems, Steven C. Roach and Amy E. Eckert Editors, SUNY Press. September.

UQ and the Future of War resources including articles, books, blog posts and podcast available at: https://law.uq.edu.au/research/future-war 


Perez, T. (2019) What will it take to trust autonomous systems? Australian Defence Magazine, October 2019 

Scholz, J.B. and Galliott, J.  (2019), Artificial Intelligence in Weapons: The Moral Imperative for Minimally-Just Autonomy, US Air Force Journal of Indo-Pacific Affairs, vol. 1, pp. 57 – 67.

General Resources

Australian Army Research Centre